Category Archives: HISTORY

December 31st on the Cosmic Calendar

To complement the previous post about Carl Sagan’s Cosmic Calendar, I here add what happened on December 31st, the last day of the year.

December 31st

  • 1:30 pm: Origin of the Proconsul and the Ramapithecus, probable ancestors of humans.
  • 10:30 pm: First human being appears.reloj
  • 11:00 pm: Use of stone tools.
  • 11:46 pm: Domestication of fire.
  • 11:56 pm: Most recent glacial period.
  • 11:59:20 pm: Invention of agriculture.
  • 11:59:50 pm: Great discoveries on astronomy.
  • 11:59:52 pm: Alphabet invention, Hammurabic legal codes.
  • 11:59:53 pm: Bronze metallurgy, compass invention, Trojan War, Olmec culture.
  • 11:59:54 pm: Iron metallurgy, Kingdom of Israel.
  • 11:59:55 pm: Birth of Buddha and Confucious, Ch’in Dynasty China, Periclean Athens.
  • 11:59:56 pm: Euclidean geometry, Archimedean physics, Ptolemaic astronomy, Greek Olympic games, Roman Empire, Birth of Christ.
  • 11:59:58 pm: Mayan civilization, Sung Dynasty China, Byzantine empire, Mongol invasion, Crusades.
  • 11:59:59 pm: Voyages of discovery from Europe and from Ming Dynasty China, Columbus lands in America, Renaissance in Europe.
  • Today, first second of the new year: Beginning of modern culture, science and technology development, French revolution, World War I, World War II, Apollo lands on the moon, spacecraft planetary exploration, search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

All wars, inventions, discoveries, kings, revolutions, independences, and all the written history of humankind happens in the las 10 seconds of December 31st.

This makes me wonder what is important in life. We have been here for a really short period of time.

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Filed under CIVILIZATION, HISTORY, science, THE WORLD, WOW

5 Wrong Theories in Old Science

Humanity has gone through  many studies and thousands of discoveries so we could know what we know today. But not everything has been easy, numerous theories and hypothesis turned out to be wrong thanks to the perseverance, intuition and curiosity of great scientists that brought them down.

With this said, I number 5 theories that long ago were thought to be absolute truths but we now know are far from being facts:

  1. Alchemy can change lead into gold, is able to create the philosopher’s stone and the life elixir.
  2. The Earth is 6,000 years old.
  3. The Atom is the smallest particle in the Universe.
  4. Heavier objects fall faster than lighter ones.
  5. The liver is the organ who is in charge of sending blood to the entire body.

The statements above were firmly believed. This is one of the main reasons why we must not be surprised if what we think today turns out not to be true in a near future. That’s why it is really important to constantly:

  • break paradigms,
  • refuse any type of dogma,
  • think outside the box,
  • innovate,
  • question what has been stipulated by others or by ourselves, and
  • always keep questioning.

Finally, I would like to bring out this video in which Steve Jobs shares a couple of thoughts with Stanford’s graduated students in 2005. If you haven’t seen it, it will definitely leave you a couple of things to think about, and if you have already seen it, it’s worth watching it again.

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Filed under HISTORY, science, THE WORLD

Religiosity and Standard of Living

More religiosity in a country equals less standard of living.

That’s what this Gallup study indicates. During 3 years 1,000 adults were interviewed of each of the 143 countries elected for the analysis. They were asked if religion was an important part of their daily lives.

From al countries, the median proportion of residents who said that religion was an important part of their daily lives is 82%. Egypt, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are the three most religious countries according to the study with 100%, 99% and 99% respectively. On the other hand, the 3 least religious countries are Estonia, Sweden and Denmark with 14%, 17% and 18%.

The map below shows the religiosity by country in which the most religious countries are the ones colored in dark green while the least religious are the ones colored in light green.

I would like to highlight that:

  • 8 of the 11 countries in which almost all residents (at least 98%) said that religion is importante in their lives, are the poorest countries in sub-saharan Africa and Asia.
  • The 10 least religious countries in the analysis are some of the countries with the highest living standards in the world including: Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Hong Kong and Japan.

Interesting. A study that definitely makes me think.

Here’s the link to the complete study.

* BONUS*

This video shows the origin of religions and their expansion in the world.

Vodpod videos no longer available.

More of this type of videos: www.mapsofwar.com.

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Filed under HISTORY, RELIGION