Tag Archives: Cosmic Calendar

December 31st on the Cosmic Calendar

To complement the previous post about Carl Sagan’s Cosmic Calendar, I here add what happened on December 31st, the last day of the year.

December 31st

  • 1:30 pm: Origin of the Proconsul and the Ramapithecus, probable ancestors of humans.
  • 10:30 pm: First human being appears.reloj
  • 11:00 pm: Use of stone tools.
  • 11:46 pm: Domestication of fire.
  • 11:56 pm: Most recent glacial period.
  • 11:59:20 pm: Invention of agriculture.
  • 11:59:50 pm: Great discoveries on astronomy.
  • 11:59:52 pm: Alphabet invention, Hammurabic legal codes.
  • 11:59:53 pm: Bronze metallurgy, compass invention, Trojan War, Olmec culture.
  • 11:59:54 pm: Iron metallurgy, Kingdom of Israel.
  • 11:59:55 pm: Birth of Buddha and Confucious, Ch’in Dynasty China, Periclean Athens.
  • 11:59:56 pm: Euclidean geometry, Archimedean physics, Ptolemaic astronomy, Greek Olympic games, Roman Empire, Birth of Christ.
  • 11:59:58 pm: Mayan civilization, Sung Dynasty China, Byzantine empire, Mongol invasion, Crusades.
  • 11:59:59 pm: Voyages of discovery from Europe and from Ming Dynasty China, Columbus lands in America, Renaissance in Europe.
  • Today, first second of the new year: Beginning of modern culture, science and technology development, French revolution, World War I, World War II, Apollo lands on the moon, spacecraft planetary exploration, search for extraterrestrial intelligence.

All wars, inventions, discoveries, kings, revolutions, independences, and all the written history of humankind happens in the las 10 seconds of December 31st.

This makes me wonder what is important in life. We have been here for a really short period of time.

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Cosmic Calendar

I have already mentioned in previous posts that I am a HUGE Carl Sagan fan, not just because of his expertise in several science areas, but also because he loved to share everything he knew with calendariopeople and he did it in a way that was really easy to understand for everyone.

One of my favorite explanations made by him is the cosmic calendar and it is precisely the topic of this post.

The main purpose of the cosmic calendar is to represent the history of the universe in a calendar year (from January to December) since the Big Bang till today. The object is to represent the most important events in a timeline to have a better perspective and understanding of what happened billions of years ago.

Having this in mind, this is how the cosmic calendar looks like:

JANUARY

  • January 1st: The Big Bang. The universe is formed.

FEBRUARY

MARCH

APRIL

MAY

  • May 1st: Origin of the Milky Way.

JUNE

  • Planetary systems are formed.

JULY

  • Planetary systems are formed.

AUGUST

  • Planetary systems are formed.

SEPTEMBER

  • September 9th: Origin of the Solar System.
  • September 14th: Formation of the Earth.
  • September 25th: Origin of life on Earth.

OCTOBER

  • October 2nd: Formation of the oldest known rocks.
  • October 9th: Oldest fossils.

NOVEMBER

  • November 1st: Sexual differentiation.
  • November 12th: Oldest photosynthetical plants known.
  • November 15th: Eukaryotes appear (first cells with a nucleus).

DECEMBER

  • December 1st: Formation of an atmosphere filled with oxygen on Earth.
  • December 18th: First plancton.
  • December 19th: First fish. Vertebrates appear.
  • December 21st: First insects.
  • December 23rd: Reptiles appear.
  • December 24th: First dinosaurs.
  • December 26th: Mammals appear.
  • December 28th: First flowers. Dinosaurs become extinct.
  • December 29th: First primates.
  • December 31st: First human appears.

_________________

Temporary Scale:

Ω A month represents 1.25 billion years.
Ω A day represents 40 million years.
Ω A second represents 500 years.

_________________

When I first read this data I found myself in a universal context in which I had never been.

On the next post I’ll give the detail of what happened on December 31st of the cosmic calendar.

If you want further information about the topic you can find it in the famous Carl Sagan’s TV series “Cosmos” or in his book  “The Dragons of Eden.” In youtube you can also find related content.

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Filed under ASTRONOMY, I only know that I don't know anything, UNIVERSE, WOW